Stop Saying There Were No Black People in Medieval Europe

I’m a woman with a doctorate who also happens to love popular culture. Most of the time cinema or television is where my mind goes to rest, regroup and rejuvenate.

Men in Moorish dress for a parade in the city of Orihuela, Spain

Sometimes, like last week, the nerdy side and the contemporary side clash. That’s exactly what happened when I read criticism of John Boyega’s comments about the HBO hit Game of Thrones. He made an eloquent point:  there are no black main characters who are not slaves, liberated slaves, or working for the advancement of white people in the series watched by millions of viewers around the world. We make an event of it in my house, shunning social media for 24 hours until its available in the vast corners of the realm like Qatar.

(If you’re not into pop culture, the show is based on the series of books by G.R.R. Martin and set in a mythical civilization akin to medieval Europe.)

There weren’t black people in medieval Europe, wrote commenters on every thread where the original GQ interview was regrugitated. Different versions of the same protest included there weren’t that many or be happy there are some tan white people and let them pass for non-whites.

Expanding on the theme: Boyega was a nobody and now he has opinions. He should be glad he got one and keep his mouth shut.

Hadn’t any of these people read or seen a performance (or one of the films) of Othello? Shakespeare’s play alludes to the history of Moors on the Iberian peninsula. Othello is a black man married to a white woman encited to jealousy by a devious advisor. Okay so maybe not, being a 3 act play, etc. What about the film with a once relatively unknown Julia Stiles, Josh Harnett and Mekhi Phifer, set in high school?

Speaking of Shakespeare, here is a writer in Elizabeath England who was ultra conscious of the ravages of importing people, spreading colonialism, and building empires. Again, was everyone sleeping through The Tempest in high school? (That’s the one about the white sorcerer who lands on an island and makes the native his slave…)

As I lamented the lack of awareness about European history last Friday night – yes I am THAT friend, weekend buzz kill in our ever approachign 40s – my friend said she didn’t learn about the Moors in Spain until college. That gave me pause.

This gave me pause.

When did I first know that the Moors, aka people from Africa, set up in Spain and Portugal from the 8th (MIDDLE AGES) to the 15th century, running things very, very well, until they were expelled aka kicked out, ushering in the Spanish Inquisition and the decline of the Spanish empire? To this day towns like Alcoli do re-enactments (think Civil War battle replays) of the army sending the Moors out. In fact there are festivals all over Spain that commemorate this history that most Americans probably never learn.

Moors and Christians Festival

Was in it AP European History in 11th or 12th grade when my teacher, as passionate about history as he was about being the school’s assistant soccer coach, taught us that along with the Moors, the Spainish divested themselves of their moneylenders, aka Jewish residents, and therefore triggered an economic crash ending the golden age of Spain? (Fine so what we once used to describe “Moors” no longer exists as an identity for a people group they are a mix of ancestors including African and Arab ancestry….)

Was it he or my college professor who made the link for us that the expulsion of the Moors, Jews, and anyone else who was different, was a prelude to the dangers of expelling people, on par with the later roundup of anyone who was different in Hitler’s Germany?

You know what memory is like.

Slippery at best and a quick footed dancer even in sleep.

I couldn’t tell you right now (or ever)  if it was in my high school or college history class that we learned, in today’s terms, immigrants are good for social and economic diversity. At the end of my first year I found out I didn’t have to take the European History because I had placed out on my AP test. My professor was sheepish and apologized since I had done extra work to be eligible for a Honors section of the course.

At the end of my first year I found out I didn’t have to take the European History because I had placed out on my AP test. My professor was sheepish and apologized since I had done extra work to be eligible for a Honors section of the course.

“That’s okay,” I said after a moment of GTFO ARE YOU SERIOUS I WASTED A SEMESTER??? “We wouldn’t have met otherwise.”

Sounds like I was an ass-kisser, and  it’s true I can be very diplomatic.

Yet this particular professor I stayed in touch with and became my lifelong friend. Who knows – maybe we would have met later on in The World Since 1945 and it would have been the same. There was no honors section of that course, four of huddled around a desk in her office on which papers, books, and notebooks teetered in stacks that would inspire the makers of the Leaning Tower of Pisa. She tried to convince me to become a history major since I had enough courses – all I had to do was add one more senior seminar.

I was already double majoring in Psychology and English because my favorite professor in that department – also my advisor – made the same argument (all I needed was two courses). Ready for the ‘real world’ or the next step in my life I said no and went on to graduates in literature.

All this to say do I only know about the Moors in Spain because of passionate teachers in my life? Yes.

We need passionate teachers who can inspire writers to grow up and tell the stories of those who are on the margins. Because those people also transmit knowledge that becomes tacit as we grow older.

We need good teachers so we can be more accurate keyboard warriors.

When we’re educated well we aren’t threatened when others want to join the table. We support them because we know a flourishing society is when all members contribute.  help spark a conversation about the current mainstream. Whether or not people are prepared to listen.

We can spark a conversation about the current mainstream. Whether or not people are prepared to listen.


The Benefits of Writing a Trilogy by @tonyriches

I first “met” Tony in the Twittersphere back in 2012. We were both new to eBooks and interested in well researched, unique stories. None of that has changed – though we both have several titles under our belt.

He’s gone deeper into historical fiction and now shares his insights on trilogies.



For most writers, completing one book would seem more than enough of an achievement, so why would anyone make a commitment to writing three?  I was reading Conn Iggulden’s impressive Wars of the Roses trilogy, when the answer occurred to me.

There are real benefits of tackling any story as a trilogy and now I’ve written one I’m convinced it’s something any novelist could consider. The scope of a trilogy offers writers a liberating sense of space and freedom, as ideas hinted at in the first book can be developed and explored over the rest. This means the writer has space to explore the complexity of relationships that evolve over time, as well as the shifting social, political and economic context over years – or even generations, offering readers a more ‘immersive’ experience.

There are also practical and commercial considerations. If you follow the fashion for longer books, you have one opportunity to sell it and the promotion can only begin once it’s available for pre-order. I was able to promote book one of my Tudor trilogy while writing book two (and it became a best-seller in the UK, US and Australia.)  Readers began contacting me to ask when the next book would be available and I soon built an international reader base for the trilogy.

Similarly, although each book works as a ‘stand-alone’, I’ve seen evidence in my sales that even people who read them in the wrong order tend to buy the others. I also hadn’t realised Amazon (and other retailers) are happy to promote and market a trilogy (or any series) as a discounted single purchase, which is good value for readers and means your books are more likely to be ‘discovered’.

Finally, a trilogy offers a framework for developing wok on an ‘epic’ scale. In my case, I realised there were countless novels about the court of King Henry VIII and his six wives, yet I could find almost nothing about the early Tudors who founded the dynasty. The idea for The Tudor Trilogy was that King Henry VIII’s father could be born in book one, ‘come of age’ in book two, and rule England in book three, so there would be plenty of scope to explore his life and times.

The first book of the trilogy was my fourth novel, so I had a good idea about the structure. In book one, OWEN, a Welsh servant of Queen Catherine of Valois, the lonely widow of King Henry V, falls in love with her and they marry in secret. Their eldest son Edmund Tudor marries the thirteen year-old heiress Lady Margaret Beaufort, and fathers a child with her to secure her inheritance. The birth of her son, Henry, nearly kills her, and when her husband dies mysteriously, his younger brother Jasper Tudor swears to protect them.

In book two, JASPER, they flee to exile in Brittany and plan to one day return and make Henry King of England. King Richard III has taken the throne and has a powerful army of thousands – while Jasper and Henry have nothing. Even the clothes they wear are paid for by the Duke of Brittany. So how can they possibly invade England and defeat King Richard at the Battle of Bosworth?

In the final book of the trilogy, HENRY, I explore how he brought peace to England by marrying Elizabeth of York, the beautiful daughter of his enemy, King Edward IV. The Tudor trilogy offers me the scope and depth to help readers understand how Henry’s second son became King Henry VIII, the tyrant who transformed the history of England forever.

Tony Riches is a full time author of best-selling fiction and non-fiction books. He lives by the sea in Pembrokeshire, West Wales with his wife and enjoys sea and river kayaking in his spare time. For more information about Tony’s other books please visit his popular blog, The Writing Desk and website and find him on Facebook and Twitter @tonyriches.  The Tudor Trilogy is available on Amazon UK  Amazon US and Amazon AU

What You Need to Know about Qatar

When most of us moved to the Arabian Gulf state of Qatar, in 2005 or earlier, our family and friends thought we were in Dubai. Doha become a buzz word in the international community after that infamous 2010 World Cup bid to host the games in 2022.

This summer, in the middle of Ramadan, during soaring temperatures, and swirling dust storms, my host country is in the headlines again.

In the middle of our annual summer trip home, there is less of what has become the familiar chit-chat.

  • “How do you really pronounce it? Cutter? Or Quatar?”
  • “Do you like it there?”
  • “What do they think about the new president?”

Thanks to geo-political activity in the region the questions have circled back to echo the early days of moving there.

  • “Are you okay?”
  • “Is it safe?”
  • “When will you come home?”

It’s no secret that Qatar’s closest neighbors, once allies, are now playing a very different role in the region. If you don’t know much about the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), the accusations of harboring terrorists, funding groups, and being too independent for their own good, would sound persusassive. The allegations against Qatar are like the proveriable pot calling the kettle out considering the roles citizens of other GCC countries have played in terror events around the world.

Here’s what you should know about this place that I and hundreds of thousands of other expats consider our second home.

Qataris value education

Like most of the developed world, the Qatari government has the wisdom to pour their oil wealth into their greatest asset – their young people. Since 1998 the Qatar Foundation for Technology, Science and Education has created universities, secondary schools, blood banks, entrepreneurial centers—this list could go on and on and on—because there are indeed that many centers of innovation. They all have one goal in mind—to build human capacity.  That’s why I’m there. I teach literature and writing to students who want a competitive education, many of them sitting in classrooms with students of the opposite gender for the first time.

Education is one arena where Qataris demonstrate again and again their willingness to discuss, to engage in dialogue, and to debate, starting from the highest levels of government, to the administrators, and on down to students.

Having worked at five of the six universities in Education City, I know that these campuses are beacons of pluralism and play a central role in the advancement of Qatari women—a group that already enjoys more privileges than their neighbors to the south.

Qataris value women

I moved to Qatar as a single South Asian American woman and immediately felt safer than I had in most North American cities.  I got a rental car and learned how to navigate the city (as soon as I realized being driven around wasn’t as glamorous as it sounded—more like wasting minutes of your life waiting for someone to pick you up).

In most business dealings, I sit at tables full of male colleagues twice my age and am treated with courtesy and respect (much more so than by other expat women—another story for a different time). Women can vote and run for political office. Some of the most prominent roles in education and the arts are held by Qatari women.

Qataris value cosmopolitanism

Most of my Qatari friends speak more languages (4) and have traveled to more countries than I have (20+). Being from a small, peninsular state, they have long been accustomed to seeing the world, whether London, New York or Paris. Whenever I see one particular former student who took Modern South Asian literature with me, he never fails to mention the first book we read in that class, an Indian historical family saga. Our oldest son thinks our neighbor Mohammed is his cousin because the two of them were born a week apart and now they sit together on the bus. Multicultural society aside, the funds not being put into education are going full force into film, museums, medicine and sports.

You probably won’t hear any of this in the aggressive suggestions of interference by Qatar’s neighbors.

Qatar isn’t perfect. Then again during this period of global political change, who, (besides Canada) can say they’re anywhere close?

Then again during this period of global political change, who, (besides Canada) can say they don’t have extremists among them?

What is abundantly clear to those of us who have lived and worked here in the Middle East is that Qatar is necessary for a peaceful and stable region. They are already becoming a microcosm of all that we hope for. For this they deserve support. Not ostracisim.